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Twin Peaks

How I apply Twin Peaks to work

in Editor Pick/Film & TV Psychology/Work Psychology by

‘People will be looking at this. We don’t know what will be there in 50 years. We have to think about how it will suit the community in the long-term!’

‘No, at the end of the day, it’s just a concrete box. End of story.’


I observed this tense argument between an architect and construction manager about the design of a functional building. They had had finally met on the eve of construction where their competing priorities and ways of perceiving the world brought them into conflict.

For the architect, the design was everything. It was a place for people to work. It was something that would be viewed and either hated or admired. They perceived the building in a holistic way.

For the construction manager, it was a functional building with a budget and time-frame. One of hundreds he would see go up and, one day, come down.

There was clearly a gap between the way they perceived the intended purpose of the building. The architect viewed the infrastructure as a component of the broader community. The construction worker perceived the building as a functional tool that would be operated and maintained.

These perceptions and the way we categorise the world inevitably leads to disagreement, conflict and can also limit or enhance our creativity.

When we are infants, we learn to recognise the blurry images in front of us and assign them labels from the words we hear. We learn to make distinctions between objects and assign them distinctive qualities so that we can navigate the world.

Over time, our ability to categorise the world become more inventive and complex. We form abstract ideas like ‘art’ and ‘science’ and silo our ideas and thoughts around what these constructs mean. For example, we learn to associate numbers and formulas with mathematics. This construct is related to order and predictability. In contrast, art comes to mean freedom, creativity, and expression.

Psychologist, George Kelly, referred to concepts like this as ‘constructs’ as part of his personal construct theory. Kelly believed understanding constructs was the key to unpacking the mind and behaviour.

Constructs start off black and white. There’s ‘good’ and ‘bad’ and ‘yummy’ and ‘yucky’. But over time, we become better at the shades of grey.

For example, art is initially viewed as the activities we provide children, like painting, drawing and craft. But over time, children and adults learn that art can require a level of mathematical precision—perhaps scientific accuracy—when applied.

I recall when I was at school, a talented friend of mine drew a shape and asked me what I thought it was. I guessed but I was wrong. It was just a ‘line’. I was looking for meaning but he was educating me about the practical reality of art. Art could be broken down into how to apply a simple logic of geometry and measurement that made him a better artist.

Similarly, maths and scientific theories, although orderly and logical, ultimately need to be expressed and communicated in language, which can be highly subjective and even creative. The more complex concepts, like Quantum Mechanics, requires a level of abstract thought and imagination that is beyond most artists and possibly most people on earth. Einstein was famously quoted as coming up with the concept of relativity by fantasising what it would be like to ride a wave of light.

In short, strict adherence to how we view a construct, can limit our thinking and, hence, our progress. When we allow something to challenge our constructs, it can lead to something more original and memorable.

The most recent time this has occurred for me is revisiting the revived television show, Twin Peaks, which has now returned to television after a 25-year hiatus.

The original show came out in 1989 and drew the audience in with a classic ‘who dunnit’ murder mystery. This central plot played to the logical murder mystery construct. That is, we expected to follow a detective solve a series of clues until the killer is revealed in the final act.

But director and co-creator, David Lynch, disrupted the genre, introducing surreal and non-traditional elements.

There were dream sequences involving mysterious clues provided by a dancing dwarf, a giant, and the murder victim herself. The primary protagonist, Agent Cooper, used intuition and insight to help him solve the mystery. One scene showed Cooper state the names of suspects as he hurled a rock towards empty bottles. The rocks that hit led to prime suspects in the murder.

In the finale of the original show, he eventually visited a strange parallel world between worlds and came face to face with demonic spirits who seemed to be at the bottom of the murder mystery. So much for ‘the butler did it’.

Lynch deconstructed the traditional murder mystery, which infuriated many viewers who simply wanted a beginning, middle and end to fit their existing schemas.

The result was something unique and memorable that invaded popular culture and has since influenced many popular shows for decades.

The new season of Twin Peaks has taken this notion even further.

A whole episode was devoted to the first nuclear test in New Mexico in the 1940s that catapulted the audience inside the explosion where a parallel universe was seemingly unlocked. For 45 minutes, we are invited into an extensive, surreal television experience that would challenge the obtuse constructs of most television audiences.

To many it would be perceived as unstructured nonsense. To others it provided meaning in a non-linear and structured manner.

To some extent, Lynch returned the audience to their infant state again trying to find meaning in the blurry images and sounds. It’s uncomfortable and challenging because it doesn’t fit an existing construct.

Benefits of Challenging Constructs

Aside from the enjoyable/frustrating Lynchian trips to the surreal and abstract, I believe there is a modest application of this kind of thinking that can be applied in more practical ways.

Creativity can be achieved by relaxing the boundaries between constructs.

Computers were once considered a tool of a programmer or computer technician. The average person didn’t use or even know they needed a computer. The visual interface, introduced by Apple, destroyed this artificial boundary.

The computer was no longer a computational tool. It became a way of facilitating every aspect of life and work through automation.

More recently, this new way of thinking has opened new models of operating and has disrupted whole industries through the internet and smart-phone apps.

My first experience in an Uber initially had to overcome an apprehension that I was sitting in a strange car with a strange person. Of course, I had been doing this my whole life with taxi drivers. The construct of how we travel and who can provide the service needed to evolve.

I’ve also learned to embrace the ‘cloud’. My original construct of ‘security’ was that I had my valuable information in a close, secure, physical location like on a backup drive.

But if it’s stolen in one place, like on my laptop, then I will never see it again. The construct of security needed to evolve to appreciate that information is sometimes more secure when it isn’t limited by being contained in one place.


Redesigning Workplaces

As part of Opposite, I’ve spent the past couple of years using an approach called process engagement, which deconstructs existing constructs—that is, ways of thinking and structuring our work—to help develop creative solutions as well as reset thinking to simplify workplace processes.

Here are a few examples of how it helps:


  • Initially remove the labels and categories from the existing processes, structures, and roles. The preconceived structure and language can bias you before you can proceed. For example, if you assume someone has a role ‘administrator’ you will ensure there is administration for them to complete.
  • Set some parameters around the process redesign so that the task isn’t aimless but make sure those parameters do not box you into designing the same thing again.


  • The focus should be on defining the users/customer needs not their preferences. The preferences usually come from preconceived ideas or ‘constructs’ about what works. For example, the user may assume they need a new procedural document but they may need a training program or to remove some procedures.
  • Don’t assume that stakeholder consensus is a positive sign. Avoid the need for a solution to appeal to all stakeholders. Inventive ideas can challenge constructs. If some individuals are pushing back, this doesn’t always mean you are wrong. It might be a sign you are on the right track.
  • Allow your own ‘fresh’ ideas to be challenged. Your ideas may be the most ‘construct-challenging’ but challenging a construct is not the aim in of itself. It still must bring about something meaningful.

Design & Implement

  • Eliminate visual cues that prime an instinctive response. Like Lynch, you don’t have to always convince someone in a rational, linear way. You can simply make something ‘feel right’. For example, there is a tendency to create logical systems and processes look like complex blueprints or contractual documents. This primes the user to expect something monotonous and so they won’t read it.
  • Prioritise aesthetics. Many people make the mistake of assuming graphics and attention to fonts is something that you do at the end. Aesthetics should not be thought of an enhancement to the solution. It is intrinsically part of the solution.
  • Get the solution implemented immediately for testing. There is a tendency to keep refining an idea until it’s ‘safe’ to distribute. But it is much more beneficial to engage users in a collaborative process as you build and design.

Fans deal with their grief as David Lynch pulls out of Twin Peaks

in Film & TV Psychology by

David Lynch’s announcement that he would not direct Twin Peaks Season 3 due to unsuccessful negotiations with Showtime has sent shock waves across fans who are dealing with this loss in different but expected ways.

After 1 year and 4 months of negotiations, I left because not enough money was offered to do the script the way I felt it needed to be done.

— David Lynch (@DAVID_LYNCH) April 5, 2015

Using the Kubler-Ross Five Stages of Grief model, and assuming you are a fan of its return, how are you managing your grief?

Shelly Johnson ‘Denial’?

Like Shelly Johnson, you’d rather not face the truth of a difficult situation. For her, it was facing the abuse of her psychopathic husband, Leo Johnson. For Twin Peaks fans, it’s people stating that maybe this whole thing will blow over. Maybe Showtime will make Lynch an offer he can’t refuse. Perhaps Lynch is just playing hard ball with the negotiations…

Still hope via @Variety

— Nicholas Duck (@drduckforcover) April 6, 2015

Benjamin Horne ‘Bargaining’?

When coming to face with the prospect of grief, you may have entered into bargaining for a better outcome. Like Benjamin Horne, you may think you can somehow use your words and influence to change an unchangeable outcome.

For example, one fan has started an online petition to get Showtime to reconsider their negotiations with Lynch.

Now the original cast have jumped onto the bargaining bandwagon with a Facebook page directed at Showtime to save the return of Twin Peaks.

BREAKING! #twinpeaks cast members start a #savetwinpeaks FB page – / Exclusive cast video –

— Twin Peaks (@TwinPeaksArchve) April 7, 2015

Killer BOB ‘Anger’

Perhaps you are experiencing the rage of Killer BOB, furious at Showtime for their inability to convert Lynch.

Take these fans who have bombarded the Facebook page of Showtime to vent their frustrations.


Leland Palmer ‘Depression’


When finally faced with the inevitable, you may experience the very grief you have been avoiding. Twin Peaks isn’t coming back. Lynch is moving on.

You were simply fed false hope. Does this mean you should experience intense despair, like Leland Palmer? Or Donna Haywood?


New trending GIF tagged sad, crying, twin peaks, twin peaks, david lynch, donna hayward, lara flynn boyle via Giphy

— Kinson Chow (@kcswag77) April 8, 2015

Agent Cooper ‘Acceptance’


Or you could just suck it up and focus on the positive, like Agent Cooper, and accept your situation. Don’t look at me, I’m still in denial and this blog is my very own coping mechanism.


Return of the Sequel II: The Revenge Rises Part 3

in Film & TV Psychology by


After two decades of prequels, spin-off and reboots, the sequel has returned, risen, and, er, rebooted?

Sequels play off the good memories we have of their predecessors. When we watch a sequel, we’re basically expecting to relive a cherished experience.

Like sequels, prequels try to construct a world only inferred by their predecessor films. However, often the plot isn’t all that interesting because we already know how the story ends. This is partly why the prequels of late have failed to hit the mark.

Reboots or remakes try to start a series again but always face backlash from the original fans and a continued disinterest from the people who weren’t fans the first time around.

Here is the round up of film and TV franchises that are looking to continue the original stories that were left off years ago in an effort to play off our cherished memories.

Star Wars Episode 7: The Force Awakens


The Star Wars prequels were a mixed bag. Whilst they all pulled in huge numbers at the box office, they were mostly savaged by critics. The plot, story, characters, and acting were all questionable but it was hard to find drama knowing how the whole saga was ultimately going to play out.

Star Wars 7: The Force Awakens is not only a sequel to the beloved Star Wars Trilogy from the 70s and 80s. It also includes the original cast. And, unlike the prequels, we won’t know how it’s all going to end.


Twin Peaks Season 3


It was the TV series that started off strong, lost its way half way through Season 2, and ended on an epic cliffhanger, written and directed by creator David Lynch. Dale Cooper, the upbeat protagonist detective, was seemingly possessed by the evil spirit BOB, leaving everything open for a Season 3 that never came.

The series was shortly followed by a prequel, Fire Walk with Me, that was universally panned by critics and loathed by fans of the series.

The enthusiastic fanbase created an internet meltdown late last year when Lynch announced he’d be making Season 3–an extraordinary 20 years later. Forget remaking the series. There’s finally an opportunity to right the wrongs made by leaving the fans in limbo for all these years.




Why don’t we just forget the last 20 years and make a sequel to the classic James Cameron Aliens? Nobody was too impressed by David Fincher’s Alien 3, which self-imploded during several re-writes and production problems back in the 90s.

The film was followed up by an odd but somewhat entertaining sequel, Alien Resurrection.
Then we had some appalling Alien Vs Predator sequels that almost sealed the fate of this series for good.

We returned with Prometheus, a prequel of sort to Alien, which had generally positive reviews but still couldn’t reignite the franchise. This prequel suffered the same fate as so many others, tying itself loosely to the original film enough to attract fans but failing to recreate what made the original film so good.

Now, almost 15 years since Alien Resurrection, Neill Blomkamp will write and direct what appears to be a sequel to Aliens with Sigourney Weaver, and possibly Michael Biehn, reprising their roles. It isn’t clear how this will work given both died in Alien 3.

Nevertheless, Weaver was resurrected in Alien Resurrection–as a clone–showing us that anything is possible in Hollywood.

There are rumours they’ll simply pretend Alien 3 and Alien Resurrection never happened.


Creed & Rambo V


Sylvester Stallone spent a period in the late 90s and early millennium trying to make more serious action/dramas. Perhaps he was trying to shrug off the image of being the guy who only made Rocky sequels (we were up to Rocky V).

After a series of flops, Stallone returned to making sequels again, with Rocky VI and Rambo IV. Recently, he’s announced a return to make Rambo V. This year, a sequel to his Rocky series, Creed, will also be released.


Terminator Genisys


After various attempts to reinvigorate the Terminator series, including recruiting Batman, Christian Bale, to take over as lead in Terminator Salvation, the magic formula has returned. Arnold Schwarzenegger will return to play the Terminator after playing the role as the Governator for almost a decade. Wait, that wasn’t a role?


The X Files Season 10


It was a series that sustained itself for nine years but lost its way when the two leads, David Duchovny and Gillian Anderson, stepped away from the roles. Perhaps the endless loose ends and convoluted story lines also played a part?

Both actors returned briefly to make a second X-Files movie but it was recently announced they were in discussion to return for a new season of the X-Files. I wonder if skeptic, Dana Scully, will finally admit there are aliens.


To be continued in Part 2: Films that Break the Prequel/Reboot curse: A New Beginning. In the meantime, here’s the Muppets’ take on sequels…

Twin Peaks and the need for closure

in Film & TV Psychology by


Do you think you’ll ever get a good answer for that dancing dwarf?

If you’re celebrating the return of Twin Peaks and the possibility of getting some closure to the weird, cult 90s series, then you might be a bit disappointed. Part of its charm was that it wasn’t about answers. And part of its longevity is that it left on a gripping cliffhanger with the fate of the favourite secret agent, Dale Cooper, left to our imaginations.

As an added insult, director David Lynch returned to Twin Peaks with Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me. This terrifying and gripping melodrama was universally panned. After all, it didn’t give us any answers. Lynch doesn’t do that. It explored what we knew in more depth and took us to something more surreal.

So, why do we need a conclusion? Human beings have an innate need for things to make sense. Loose ends make us feel anxious and frustrated because it creates uncertainty and ambiguity. Lynch is an expert in ambiguity. Take the red room.


The zigzagging floor instinctively throws our perception. The red curtains remove the security of a solid wall and play to our childhood fears of monsters hiding in the shadows.

None of these fears are quite conscious. Lynch plays to intuition and, perhaps, gives answers to our intuition but not our rational mind–the mind that needs closure.

So, ask yourself if you are after closure or will you be welcoming the world of ambiguity and uncertainty into your living room? I’ll pick the latter. It’s more fun than getting answers.

Psych Profiles of TV’s Favourite Detectives

in Film & TV Psychology by

What lies beneath the surface of some of television’s great detectives?

Have you ever noticed that they have an uncanny ability to solve impossible mysteries when the ordinary run of the mill detective would be shuffling papers?

Or that they are often eccentric, bad-tempered and are willing to bend, disregard or blatantly abuse the law?

Let’s look at Rust Cohle (True Detective), Sherlock Holmes (Sherlock), Agent Dale Cooper (Twin Peaks), Dr Cal Lightman (Lie to Me), Dexter Morgan (Dexter), and Dr Gregory House (House).

Focus on observable behaviours and gestures to deduce motives, detect lies, and determine causes


All detectives here are excellent at examining behaviour with the exception of Dexter.

Although Dexter can get into the heads of serial killers, he is often clueless in understanding normal human behaviour, such as humour and affection.

The edge here is given to Lightman who is completely absorbed in reading subtle body cues to determine if someone is lying.

Focus on patterns, instinct, gut feeling and even dreams.


Many of the detectives here use their hunches and have moments of insight that suggest a keen intuition.

Agent Dale Cooper trumps them all by using and trusting in signs,  dreams and alternative detective techniques to unravel clues.

He ultimately trusts in the advice in a spirit giant who leads him to his killer and a cryptic dream where the deceased, Laura Palmer, whispers the killer’s name in Cooper’s ear.

Uses deductive reasoning from tangible evidence to identify causes


The original Arthur Conan Doyle ‘Holmes’ is possibly the inspiration for all these great detectives.

House is a master diagnostician, looking at the blood work and physical evidence to identify unusual causes to disease.

Dexter uses his analysis of blood splatter and physical samples to determine the guilt of serial killers.

Sherlock is the ultimate detective in deciphering evidence at a crime scene to piece together a puzzle.

Emotional Stability
Keeps their cool under pressure when solving a mystery


Let’s face it, most of the characters up here have serious impulse control issues (Dexter being a serial killer) or substance abuse (see House’s pill popping and Cohle’s alcoholism).

The only stable chap is Cooper, who is calm and in control, even when confronted with the supernatural, as well as being upbeat (although he has a borderline caffeine and sugar addiction).


Gets the Job Done

Does everything and anything to finish the job, including going outside the law


The bottom line is that you can have a detective full of insight and deductive reasoning but some are more motivated (cursed?) to get the job done.

Never to leave a loose end, Dexter always gets the killer in the end and literally cleans up afterwards.

Rust is willing to completely immerse himself in a case going under cover for years, sniffing, injecting and drinking himself into oblivion.


Uses physical force to get (Just?) results


And, of course, if they can handle themselves in physical combat, this can help them get through some unexpected barriers.

House has been known to drug and manipulate his way to distract people in his way.

But it’s Dexter and Cohle who are ultimately the toughest customers here. Both are fierce in combat and have no fear. Homourable mention to Cooper’s sharp shooting and Holme’s Bartitsu.


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