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A brief history of every superhero movie ever made

in Film & TV Psychology/Media Psychology by


‘You are not taking me to the cooooler’ decalred Mr Freeze, played by former Mr Universe, Terminator, Austrian and now former Governor, Arnold Schwarzenegger. It was one of 27 ice puns from the evil villain in the critically panned Batman and Robin made in 1998.

Today, almost two decades later, Warner Bros produced yet another critical flop with the film Batman versus Superman: Dawn of Justice. This comes after having two decades to learn from their misfire and perfect the comicbook formula from the recent success stories of the Avengers and Christopher Nolan’s Dark Knight trilogy.

Are superhero movies worth it?

Steven Spielberg seems to think they’re a fad that will pass, like Westerns. Nevertheless, it seems every studio is banking on comicbook films to finance them for the short to long-term. The new strategy is to create a sustainable franchise of films that spin-off new characters from time to time.

Today film studios aren’t just banking on the return of one film. They’re willing to sacrifice the plot of one film and confuse their audience to service a larger story.

The Origin Story of Superman


This isn’t a new strategy. It actually began way back in 1978, a year before I existed, with the mega-hit, Superman: The Movie.

Directed by Richard Donnor, it featured Christopher Reeve, a relative unknown in the title role, with a supporting cast starring the Godfather himself, Marlon Brando, and two time Oscar winner Gene Hackman.

The film was developed with the view of making a legitimate film rather than some kids flick. So it featured serious actors with serious effects. Christopher Reeve was not to look like a man hanging from a wire. The catch-phrase of the film at the time was ‘you will believe a man can fly’.

The film went on to earn over $400 mil from a budget of $50 mil.

But there was already a long-term plan in place to maximise the return of actors like Brando and Hackman. As Superman: The Movie was being filmed, scenes for the sequel were being shot in parallel. Superman II was credited to Richard Lester although it was Donner who shot most of the scenes and was rumoured to be unceremoniously axed.

The sequel was a modest hit but quickly dissolved when Lester returned to direct Superman III with a strange focus on slapstick comedy. The film is simply remembered as simply being not as bad as Superman IV: The Quest for Peace.

Flash forward to 1987, Superman IV included a poor investment of $11 mil to earn only $20 mil. It was also a critical flop and featured appalling special effects, including a scene where Mariel Hemingway falls, screaming, from the moon towards earth.

The first chapter of the Superman story closed on the Christopher Reeve era with a whimper. Two hits and two flops.

Are superhero movies worth it?

Seeing the light with the Dark Knight


In 1989, Warner Bros gave the Dark Knight—Batman—a go. Tim Burton, an up and coming director who stood out with the film Pee Wees Big Adventure, was signed up to direct. Burton is now known as that dark director with an eye for quirky, twisted, and troubled characters.

He was perfect for Batman and his popular, infamous antagonist, the Joker.

Yet, the film almost killed him. He had little control of the script that at one stage Jack Nicholson, who played the Joker, exclaimed to Burton ‘why are we walking up and down all these stairs?!’.

Nicholson was referring the climactic scene in a church tower that was being written by the film executives at the same time Burton desperately tried to film the scene.

It was Burton’s first major experience on working on a film with heavy studio interference and might explain why so many of his subsequent films have been under his full control. Today he is known for casting his wife, Helena Bonham Carter, and friend, Johnny Depp, in most of the films he creates.

Batman was a critical and commercial success and was immediately followed with an interesting but downbeat sequel Batman Returns also starring Michael Keaton, as Batman, Danny Devito, as the Penguin, and Michelle Phieffer, as Catwoman.

I wonder if the selection of characters was more for the marking of the film that enabled them to highlight ‘The Bat, the Cat, the Penguin’ in a movie poster and to sell the inevitable ‘Happy Meal’ toys at McDonalds?

But this darker and more twisted sequel led to children walking out of the theater in tears. The film featured Devito’s Penguin mangling a man’s nose with his teeth with blood spraying everywhere. In a later scene Penguin stumbles to his death, coughing up black blood oozing from his nose.

Meanwhile, Michelle Phieffer’s Catwoman kills the primary villain, played by Christopher Walken, by giving him a kiss whilst setting him on fire with a blast of electricity.

This was no film to sell Happy Meals.

A Lighter Knight


Out of fear of losing the key perceived demographic—kids—Warner Bros invited a fresh take on the dark knight with Batman Forever, directed by Joel Schumacher.

The film featured ‘bat nipples’ on the bat suit, neon paint and lights, and a heavy dose of the popular 90s comedian, Jim Carrey, as the Riddler, who changes his lycra costume about half a dozen times. The film at the time was warmly welcomed as the light hearted fun missing from Burton’s films.

A couple of years later, George Clooney exclaimed in dismay–echoing Nicholson eight years earlier—‘why are we wearing new costumes?’. Clooney spends much of the film, Batman and Robin, looking confused.

One minute he’s wearing a black turtleneck, playing it serious as billionaire Bruce Wayne. The next minute the camera’s doing a close up of his codpiece and buttocks as he zips up the batsuit.

The final act features Batman and his sidekicks in new superhero suits, which were simply introduced to sell more toys. Schumacher, the guy who rescued Batman from being too dark, was immediately demonised for turning Batman into a joke.

A small hit followed by one of the worst superhero movies of all time.

Are superhero movies worth it?

Bryan Singer’s Superman love affair


Meanwhile, 20th Century Fox entered the scene in 2000 with the critical and commercial success of X-Men. Mirroring Burton’s experience with Warners, director Bryan Singer found himself with the studio micro-managing and cutting his budget. Nevertheless, he was able to restore some of the credibility lost with the Schumacher fiasco.

Using Richard Donner’s original Superman as a guide, Singer wanted X-Men to be a legitimate film. He recruited award winning Shakespearean actors Patrick Stewart and Ian Mckellen as the leads and focussed on developing characters.

The film was a massive success, in part because it made $296 mil from the small $75 mil budget it was assigned.

The sequel X2 was equally successful, but Singer was seduced by Warner Bros to dump the third sequel in favour of a more prestigious project. He was to follow his love of Donner’s Superman to create his own Superman film.

The X-Men series persevered with a modestly successful but generally loathed film X-Men 3. It was directed by Brett Ratner, who made a lot of silly films with Jackie Chan and Chris Tucker. The sequel almost ended the X-Men franchise by killing off key characters and aggravating fans.

Singer also failed to impress with the exchange. So enamoured with Donner’s original, he decided to make a pseudo-sequel to Superman II, pretending that III and IV didn’t exist. He recruited model, Brandon Routh, to play Superman possibly because he had a passing resemblance to Christopher Reeve.

Kevin Spacey was brought in to play the evil villain, Lex Luthor, which seemed to be a good move until you realise Spacey and Routh have virtually no interaction in the film or chemistry. The film did ok at the box office but was lukewarm enough for Warner Bros to cancel the planned sequel. Routh has gone on to do…not much.

Are superhero movies worth it?

The Dark Knight Returns and Rises

Dark Knight

Around the same time Warner Bros invested in the sequel with Superman, they experimented with a new approach with Batman.

Batman Begins, directed by a relative newcomer, Christopher Nolan, abandoned the camp silliness of Joel Schumacher and presented the Batman character as if he existed in the real world. The film was the first in a series of ‘reboots’, which refers to moving on from sequels and simply restarting the franchise with a clean slate.

Following Superman: The Movie formula, Nolan also acknowledged the film needed legitimacy, recruiting supporting actors with credibility.

He cast Michael Cain as Batman’s humble butler, as well as Morgan Freeman, and Liam Neeson. Intense and respected British actor, Christian Bale, was also cast as Batman. The actor displayed the same intensity of the fictional character, losing 63 pounds for a role in the Machinist and re-gaining the same weight and muscle in just a few months to play Batman.

Batman Begins was followed by the mega-hit, the Dark Knight, featuring Heath Ledger as the Joker, who died before the film was released but won an Oscar for the role.

Years after its release, Nolan returned to finish his Batman story with the Dark Knight Rises. The film was also a financial and critical success.

But Nolan had finished his story. Bale had hung up the cape and cowl, and it was too soon to reinvent Batman all over again.

Spiderman Spiderman, does what every other superhero film can


Meanwhile, Sony had undergone its own highs and lows with Spiderman. In 2002, and after a decade of on again off again production woes, Sam Raimi delivered the hit starring Tobey Maguire. It was shortly followed by Spiderman II, which was declared the best superhero movie of all time…at the time.

But following the law of diminishing returns, Raimi failed to impress with the second sequel, Spiderman 3. Following the experiences of Donner, Burton, and Singer, even Raimi was not immune to the tinkering of the studio, as they shoe horned a villain into the already bloated story to please fans.

The film buckled under the studio pressure and like others before it, killed the chances of another sequel.

So, Sony decided to do their own reboot. Spiderman was reintroduced only five years after Spiderman 3, with Andrew Garfield taking over the role, which was a modest success.

A couple of years later, yet another Spiderman sequel was released but was a critical failure. The plot, again, was bloated with studio over involvement, attempting to set up more characters and sequels, which simply distracted from the film itself.

Marvel’s dream run


In part, this idea to use a film as a mere catalyst for more films was spurred by Marvel, who had the surprise hit Iron Man with Robert Downey Jnr in 2008. Unlike Batman, Superman, and Spiderman, Iron Man was not a household name and relied heavily on Downey Jr’s charisma to attract a new kind of audience.

This audience liked the tongue and cheek jokes and self-referential humour as much as the action and drama. The film also benefited from being introduced at a time the special effects were allowing directors more freedom to shoot exactly what they dreamed up on the storyboard.

But more importantly, Iron Man started planting the seeds that this one story was simply a smaller chapter, if not paragraph, in a bigger universe.  Marvel has capitalised on this message for the better part of 10 years as they continue to introduce new, lesser known comicbook  characters by simply allowing them to leap frog off more popular ones.

Iron Man was shortly followed by a flurry of related films, Captain America, Thor, and Iron Man 2. In fact, Iron Man 2 is now regarded as a mere stopover film to introduce more characters to the Marvel Universe.

This strategy allowed Marvel to release The Avengers, the first superhero team-up movie. The film was a mega-blockbuster, taking in an estimated $1.5 bil in total, demonstrating the power of building a universe of characters rather than creating stand-alone films with sequels.

Marvel were also able to re-introduce another lukewarm hero, the Incredible Hulk, who had already two misfires in Ang Lee’s Hulk, with Eric Bana, and the Incredible Hulk, with Edward Norton. The  Hulk may not be able to carry a film in of itself but is incredibly popular as a supporting act.

The Marvel formula continues to deliver even though the films are in serious danger of collapsing with all the characters, related characters, plots and related plots.

Since the Avengers, we have also seen the related films: Guardians of the Galaxy, Thor 2, Captain America Winter Soldier, Ant Man, Iron Man 3, Deadpool, and the Avengers 2.

Downey Jr has played Iron Man in five films, with another three on the way, and has literally dedicated the third act of his career to this hero. Conceding to the mighty Marvel juggernaut, Sony have allowed their popular character, Spiderman, to appear in Captain America Civil War.

If you can’t beat them, join them.

Sony have their own problems. Not only have the new Spidey films they made failed to resonate but they also invested in three Fantastic Four films each of which have been critical failures.

Superman Returns…again?


As Marvel continues to dominate, Warner Bros must have reflected on their own course of action. Although they achieved enormous success with Nolan’s Batman, Nolan was always keen to contain not expand his universe. Each of his three Batman films were treated as stand alone projects and he did the unthinkable with the Dark Knight Rises by ending Batman’s career, giving him a happy conclusion.

Warners hired Nolan and his brother to help out with the writing and producing of Man of Steel, the first Superman film since Singer’s ill-fated Superman Returns. They were banking on another reboot to pave the way forward.

Nolan and his brother were viewed as chief architects but they got director Zack Snyder to direct who is well known for another comic book success/failure, Watchmen. Watchmen made money but had mixed reviews from fans and the general audience alike.

Man of Steel was no more successful than Superman Returns but in this environment where minor characters like Thor were churning out minor blockbusters, Warners decided Man of Steel was good enough to establish their own ‘DC Universe’.

The Dark Knight Returns…again?

So, they went hunting for Christian Bale who declined to return. When they couldn’t convince Bale to don the cape and cowl again, a new strategy appeared to form. Batman would be reintroduced in Batman versus Superman in much the same way Spiderman was rebooted and Batman before him in Batman Begins.

Another reboot to the Batman character who had been rebooted once before after many sequels. It was starting to look like Warner Bros didn’t really have much in the way of a long-term plan.

This Batman, now played by Ben Affleck, is a world weary veteran with his own back story that is played largely off screen. The director, Zack Snyder, seems intent on reinventing the character and bypassing a lot of his legacy. Yet he spends the opening credits of Batman versus Superman showing the death of Batman’s parents—the third time this has been depicted on screen.

Batman versus Superman: Dawn of a New Franchise


Batman versus Superman was introduced off the back of decades of misfires, reboots, restarts, sequels and pseudo sequels.

Warner Bros brought in Snyder to direct again and started to let the scope creep a little bit every month. First, the film was to be a Superman sequel to Man of Steel. Shortly after this messaging, it became a Batman and Superman film. And not long after this, it was really a set up for the new Batman character.

In the mix of this inconsistent messaging, it became the catalyst for a ‘Justice League’ film, with the title ‘Batman versus Superman: Dawn of Justice’, implying that the popular Justice League superhero team the would appear.

Characters like the Flash and Aquaman were hinted at and others, like Wonder Woman, were revealed to be making their debut.

Batman versus Superman has met with one of the most mixed responses of all time. It is technically a critical flop. Most critics hate it. Most fans seem to hate it too. Yet, the film secured one of the largest opening weekends of all time.

Warner Bros, no doubt, would prefer the money over the critical acclaim but, no doubt, would be seriously concerned that their platform for future films could be undermined by the negative word of mouth.

And they should. A week later, the film dropped its takings by 75%. Of course, any film that topples the box office has only one place to go—down—so some of this drop is likely a bit of regression to the mean.

The future of franchises

A spinoff with villains is also ready for release, called ‘Suicide Squad’. Affleck is planning to direct his own Batman film. A Wonder Woman film is in the works as are spinoff characters Aquaman and Cyborg.

Warners have now gone too far to turn back and it will now be a gamble to see if these spin-off films can help anchor and stablise the franchise for future return. Fans have already petitioned to have Zack Snyder removed from future Warner Bros projects and have demanded their favourite characters are treated with more respect.

Meanwhile, Marvel have launched their new Captain America film, which bears a strong resemblance to the $1.5 bil hit the Avengers and has already started to bring in record figures. Marvel also have Avengers sequels in development as well as a long line of sequels planned for all its smaller characters.

20th Century Fox have also recovered more recently with X-Men, inviting Singer to return to direct the last successful sequel and X-Men Apocalypse. Their strategy seems to be more about expanding the universe rather than ending the storyline.

Meanwhile, Sony will be testing its return on investment for introducing Spiderman in a Marvel film.

Are superhero films worth it?

If you’re Zack Snyder or Ben Affleck, you’d be thinking it’s a bit of a roll of the dice right now. But if you’re attached in anyway to Marvel, you’d have to think the dice are loaded in your favour.

9 changes to characters that enrage comic book fans

in Editor Pick/Film & TV Psychology by

The idea of nipples on the Batman suit sent fans into fury. There are countless discussions online about how the new Superman needs to put on the red underwear again after the recent costume update that occurred for the film, Man of Steel.

Fans of comicbooks are often susceptible to a phenomena called the ‘confirmation bias’. This bias makes us seek and support ideas that align with our preconceived notions.

It is believed that when ideas or changes conflict with these preconceived ideas, we experience ‘cognitive dissonance’, which means that we struggle to reconcile the difference in views, which can lead to an outright dismissal of the idea or person who creates the alternative.

More often than not, fans of comic books choose to reject alternative ideas and updates to their beloved characters. Here are seven changes that have enraged fans.

Joker’s tattoos in Suicide Squad


Fans praised the selection of Jared Leto as the Joker in the soon to be released Suicide Squad. But there was complete dismissal of the Joker sporting a suite of tattoos from head to toe. For many, the tattoos were out of character and overkill to an already over-the-top character.

Tiny Apocalypse in X-Men


He’s one of the most anticipated villains for X-Men fans. The comic book version is enormous in size and very alien-looking in design. Brian Singer has opted to tone the villain down in stature and appearance. This may make the villain slightly more believable but why bother trying to be realistic in a film where a man can shoot lasers from his eyes?

Bat nipples in Batman Forever/Batman and Robin


The infamous bat costume from the Joel Shumacher films included the bat muscles, bat cape, bad cod piece, and even nipples. Shumacher argues that the suit was modelled off the physique of Greek sculptures. Fans, however, used this particular quirky characteristic to define the moment the bat films of the 1990s crossed over to being campy and overtly sexualised.

X-Men wearing black leather in all the X-Men films


The flamboyant X-Men costumes from the comic book were always going to be difficult to translate on screen. Director Brian Singer answered the challenged by dressing everyone in black leather. It was a trend that continued across most of the X-Men films, even though we’ve seen ridiculous costumes translate fairly well in other comic book films, such as Thor and Captain America.




Joker wears make-up in The Dark Knight


It’s hard to nail the Joker. In the comic books, the villainous Joker is permanently scared with his skin bleached white after toppling into acid (don’t you hate it when that happens?). The idea of a man falling into acid and miraculously coming out looking like a clown is fairly unbelievable. This is why director Christopher Nolan depicting Health Ledger’s Joker with white make-up. Still, there is a vocal fanbase who still disregard this Joker for not being truly ‘jokerised’.

The Mandarin red herring in Iron Man 3


It’s the anti-climax that gets some chuckles but subsequently robs Iron Man 3 of any tension in the final act. The evil, sadistic mastermind, called The Mandarin, is revealed to be an actor called Trevor. One of the comic book’s best villains is, therefore, only realised as a joke leaving fans enraged.

Batman retires in The Dark Knight Rises


Nothing angers fans more than actually finishing a comic book story. The comics go on and on endlessly telling stories where superheros live to fight another day. There were many problems with the Dark Knight Rises but nothing irritated fans more than Christopher Nolan making Batman hang up the cape at the end and having a happy ending. Fans want to see poor old Batman miserable for eternity.

Superman kills in Man of Steel


Through convenient writing, superheroes rarely face difficult decisions where they must choose between killing to prevent the needless death of innocents. They usually find a way to incarcerate or concuss the bad guy. In Man of Steel, director Zak Snyder has Superman snap the neck of a villain who was intent on killing everyone on the planet. It’s the choice that anyone would have to make but nobody liked seeing the man of steel actually make that choice.

The Joker killed Bruce Wayne’s parents

Jack Napier

Yeah, it really is hard to get the Joker right. In Tim Burton’s Batman, the Joker is the one who murders Bruce Wayne’s parents causing Bruce to become Batman. This, of course, changes the dynamic between Batman and the Joker making the ideological conflict a personal one.

Homer Simpson in a coma for 20 years and other weird theories

in Editor Pick/Film & TV Psychology by

In a recent paper, a researcher criticised psychological studies for investigating unusual and counterintuitive findings just for the sake of it. The assumption is that rather than discussing the rational and empirically derived, people are more interested in theories that spark controversy and interest.

This tendency isn’t limited to researchers. I’ve noticed many unusual theories about well-known films and TV shows. Some of them are interesting. Others are bizarre. Here are some of those weird fan theories.

Warning, some SPOILERS ahead.

Ferris Bueller is in Cameron’s Mind


Ferris Bueller’s Day Off is about a charming, rebellious teenager who fakes sick to take the day off from school. Right? Maybe…

According to this fan theory, Cameron, Ferris Bueller’s melancholic friend, is actually dreaming up Ferris Bueller. Ferris is Cameron’s alter ego.

This theory can’t really explain why Ferris’ teacher refers to him during a classroom roll call: Bueller, Bueller, Cameron?

Credibility: 0/10

Homer Simpson’s in a coma


According to a fan theory, Homer Simpson entered a coma during an April Fool’s prank in one of the early seasons of the Simpsons but never woke up. Shortly after this episode, the Simpsons started becoming more surreal and unusual suggesting we are now experiencing Homer’s unrestrained mind during his coma.

The fact that Homer ended up in a coma from an exploding beer can in the first place suggests we don’t need the coma theory to rationalise why the series became less and less grounded in reality.

Credibility: 1/10

The Lost survivors were always in purgatory


There were lots of unusual theories to explain the popular series, Lost. One of them proposed that all the survivors of the doomed air flight actually died. Each episode featured a flash back to a character who seemed to confront and overcome an inner demon. It seemed logical that perhaps they were in some kind of purgatory/limbo where they had to deal with these demons before they could move on.

In the last season, the characters were shown in new flashbacks, which ultimately turned out to be a form of limbo that they would enter when they eventually died (for some many years later).

Were they dead the whole time? Unlikely. But clearly there’s some truth to it at some point.

Here’s a good explanation of the ending.

Credibility: 4/10

Batman’s Dead

PictureIn the Dark Knight Rises, Batman (Christian Bale) presumably sacrifices his life by flying a hydrogen bomb away from Gotham city. The ending shows Batman’s butler, Alfred, ultimately tracking him down at a cafe. Both men can both move on to a happier life.

One of the fan theories suggests that maybe Alfred is just seeing what he wants to see and that Batman really did die. This would, of course, make all the hints at his escape (e.g. a miraculously fixed auto-pilot) redundant. And even Christian Bale has denied this theory.

Credibility: 2/10

Soprano’s fade to black means…


There’s at least two popular interpretations on the famous Sopranos ending. Tony Soprano is waiting with his family at a diner, looking over his shoulder and checking the door. The series just cuts to black.

The first theory is simple. The story just ends. Tony is always going to be looking over his shoulder because he’s made a lot of enemies.

The second theory is that Tony has been shot. The abrupt cut to black is the perspective of the dead man. This theory is more likely as in an earlier episode, one of the characters talks about how getting killed would most likely be life cutting to black. You wouldn’t see it coming. The same scene was also repeated in a flashback.

There is also an excellent video that outlines the argument suggesting the writers wanted to remind us prior to Tony’s eventual death.

Credibility (First Theory): 3/10
Credibility (Second Theory): 9/10

The St Elsewhere characters are a figment of a boy’s imagination


This series, set in a fictional hospital in the 1980s, had one of the more bizarre endings. A young boy with autism, Tommy Westphall, stares into a snow globe, featuring the hospital from the series. Because the show ends with Tommy staring at the snow globe, it theorised that the whole series is a figment of Tommy’s imagination.

Credibility: 8/10

Films that activate your startle reflex

in Editor Pick/Film & TV Psychology by

Surprise is an emotion we experience when an event sidesteps our expectations. A recent study showed that surprise is one of the four core emotions that we experience along with happiness, sadness, and anger. 

So it makes sense that so many films are written and structured to keep us on our toes. After all, films and TV shows are essentially designed to make us feel something.

Here are some films that have scenes that activate our startle reflex, a spine tingling experience that occurs when surprise–pleasant or unpleasant–occurs.

SPOILERS for those who haven’t seen these films.

No, I am your father!

In 1980, prior to the internet, there was no place for nerds to spoil and vent their surprise that the evil Darth Vader was actually Luke Skywalker’s (Mark Hamill) father. This scene, from the Empire Strikes Back, was so shocking that it is constantly (mis)quoted popular culture.

Why was it so shocking? Star Wars follows the typical hero’s journey archetype. This involves the hero overcoming adversity to ultimately slay the villain, his polar opposite. Until this point, we’d assumed Darth Vader was just a really evil guy. The reveal turned everything on its head.


Welcome to the real world


The Matrix is a modern update to the hero’s journey. Instead of a simple farm boy going on an adventure, it was the modern equivalent: a run of the mill office worker, who goes by the cyber name, Neo (Keanu Reeves).

The pivotal ‘startle moment’ comes when Neo discovers he doesn’t actually live in the real world. Instead, like all human beings, he’s been trapped in virtual reality whilst machines use him as a glorified battery.

This reveal startles us because it draws us into something more epic and immense, playing on unconscious fears about freewill and conforming to society.

Who is Keyser Soze?


It’s the twist that not only shocks but also makes the entire preceding film, The Usual Suspects, redundant. During a police interrogation, a unassuming, disabled criminal, Verbal (Kevin Spacey), walks a police detective through the various intricacies that led to a major heist.

Through the telling of the story, we learn the true mastermind is a character called Keyser Soze. When Verbal finishes telling his tale, he limps away but slowly begins to regain his mobility.

The audience and the detective start to piece together the real truth. Examining a notice board, the detective notices that Verbal has been using photos and other pieces of information as material to formulate his elaborate story.

Turns out Verbal is Keyer Soze and the whole story is one big lie. Cue goosebumps and confusion. End credits.

Don’t ever tell me what I can’t do!


There were enough mysteries in Lost for 10 TV shows. The best and most memorable occurred in the first season with fan favourite, John Locke (Terry O’Quinn).

Of all the survivors of a doomed flight, Locke was most prepared. He arrived with a set of hunting knives, caught wild boars, and generally showed up to save the day time and time again. He was made for survival.

In a flashback, we learn he wasn’t some adventurer or hero. He worked in a box factory, and spent his evenings talking to strange women on a phone chat line.

However, the biggest twist occurs at the end of the episode when it’s revealed he’s also paralyzed from the waist down crying out ‘don’t ever tell me what I can’t do’ when he’s rejected from participating in an Australian adventure called a ‘walkabout’.

Suddenly, our interest in the character becomes less about who he is but why he can suddenly walk when he arrives on the island. It’s make the title of the episode ‘Walkabout’ especially clever and knowing.



A double, no triple agent?


Alias was a hit and miss series that never really tops the twist reveal in the first episode. Sydney Bristow (Jennifer Garner) is an undercover agent working for a secret black ops section of the CIA. Or so she thinks.

When her fiance learns about her double life, the the black ops section executes him as per their protocols. But the biggest surprise comes when Sydney discovers she isn’t working for the CIA at all but an evil organisation who are their enemy.

Turns out she’s been working for the bad guys the whole time…I hate it when that happens.

Bait and switch with a couple of hundred barrels of gasoline


In The Dark Knight, the Joker (Heath Ledger) regularly shows up to mix and blow things up. In the biggest twist in the film, he makes Batman choose between saving Gotham’s white knight, Harvey Dent (Aaron Eckhart), and Batman’s love interest, Rachel Dawes.

Confronted with this decision, he doesn’t hesitate. Batman charges off to save the damsel in distress while the police try to get to Dent. Turns out the Joker intentionally gives Batman switched locations and Batman ends up finding Dent whilst Rachel blows to pieces.

How often does the love interest buy it in the second act?

What’s in the box?


Se7en is a bleak police procedural involving the hunt of a serial killer who is punishing his victims for their sins. The entire film has horrible endings for characters deemed sinful (e.g. a man eating himself to death) but it’s the shocking ending that is most memorable.

Having punished people for 5/7 sins, only two remain: envy and wrath. The killer (Kevin Spacey) tells one of the detectives, David Mills (Brad Pitt), that he cut off the head of Mill’s wife out of envy.

The head shows up in a delivery van and Mills is faced with a dilemma. If he kills Spacey’s character, the killer has won. Mills has become wrath. He deliberates in incredible grief and only turns the gun on the killer and shoots when he learns his wife was pregnant.

Meanwhile, audiences all over the world walked out in shock and horror, realising they too had been punished by this grim and unrelenting film.


Hannibal Lecter escapes


Hannibal Lecter is remembered for being a charming yet diabolically clever and evil villain. Trapped behind bullet proof glass and locked away in the basement of an insane asylum, there looks like no hope for his escape.

The Silence of the Lambs, based on the book of the same name, distracts us from the real story–Lecter’s escape–by showing Lecter working with FBI agent Clarice Starling (Jodie Foster) to find another terrifying serial killer.

However, when Lecter is moved from his cell, as part of helping the FBI, he quickly disposes of the ignorant security guards, mauling the face of one of them with his small, white teeth.

A SWAT team assembles and tracks Lecter down. He appears to be hiding on the roof of an elevator. But it turns out he’s actually wearing the face of one of the security guards and has already been whisked away to safety.

When Lecter pulls back the dead man’s face, the entire audience recoils in terror!


Do masks make villains scarier?

in Film & TV Psychology by

If you want a villain with impact, try concealing their face. The face is the most personal thing about us. It portrays who we are, reveals our emotions, and helps others anticipate our behaviour.

Filmmakers often use masks to conceal the faces of villains. Perhaps this unsettles us because we struggle to connect with them and find it difficult to identify signs of empathy or humanity.

Often the mask is a subtle depiction of a human skull. Such imagery associated with death and has been shown to unsettle us at an unconscious level.

Do masks make villains scarier? 

The Winter Soldier (Captain America 2)


In Captain America: The Winter Solidier, the primary antagonist, The Winter Soldier, is first shown with his entire face covered, resembling a human skull.

As the story unfolds, we learn that the Winter Soldier is Cap’s best friend, Bucky, who is shown with his eye mask removed, then without a face mask, and finally without dark eye make-up–representing his return to humanity.

We can connect with him more and he is no longer perceived as a villain.

Bane (The Dark Knight Rises)


In The Dark Knight Rises, villain, Bane, wears a gas mask that also closely resembles a human skull. We only get a glimpse of this villain without a mask, when the audience learns of a heroic deed in his past, again showing us the humanity of the villain by allowing us to connect with a normal human face.

Michael Myers (Halloween)


One of the more iconic masks is that of killer, Michael Myers, in the original Halloween. The white face and black eyes are reminiscent of a skull. The only time we see his true face is as a boy and we left imagining what horror might be underneath.

Scarecrow (Batman Begins)


Scarecrows are inherently creepy. They look like rotting corpses on sticks (ok, maybe not the Wizard of Oz one). In Batman Begins, the villain, Jonathan Crane, conceals his face with a mask that exacerbates the hallucinatory drug he gives his victims. This makes the corpse face come to life with horrors, like live maggots.  

Ghostface (Scream)


It is without a doubt that the scream mask in Scream is what makes that film so memorable. Unlike the expressionless mask of Michael Myers, this one portrays a constant state of terror, despair, and anger (it’s weird). Again, a bit like a warped skull.

The unmasking of the villains in this film only reduces the impact of the scares by revealing a couple a teenagers responsible for the crimes.

Two Face (The Dark Knight)


Character, Harvey Dent (The Dark Knight), is portrayed as a clean cut and un-corruptible district attorney. When he first displays his angry streak, his face is partially concealed by shadows, foreshadowing for what he soon becomes.

In his finally transformation, his normal face is juxtaposed against the scarred, skull-like, face. He is literally two-faced.

Hannibal Lecter (The Silence of the Lambs)


As a reverse villain reveal, Silence of the Lambs shows us the evil Hannibal Lecter already unmasked and in prison. As the film progresses, the villain is masked and removed from high security, slowly showing him re-emerging from his temporary hibernation.

Lecter then escapes by concealing himself by literally wearing another man’s face! 

Darth Vader

PicturePerhaps the most iconic villain of all, Darth Vader is a combination of body builder, David Prowse, the baritone vocals of James Earl Jones, and the diabolically evil mask that looks like a black skull.

When his mask is removed, we see a pretty sad looking actor (Sebastian Shaw) who shows us the old, frail, man beneath the machine.

What will motivate the new Avengers’ villain?

in Film & TV Psychology by

Now that the teaser for the new Avengers movie, the Age of Ultron, has been released, let’s take a closer look at the new villain, Ultron. If we follow a long line of classic villains, he’s ultimately motivated to bring about a new world order. Let’s take a look at some of the more memorable villains to see what makes them tick.

Lex Luthor (Batman Vs Superman)


Extremist Level: 6/10
Characteristics: Narcissist, Psychopath, Genius

Soon to be played by actor Jessie Eisenberg, Luthor’s character resembles the modern age corporate psychopath.

He has a cool cunning and is ultimately motivated for absolute power.

His world order is to rid the world of the alien, Superman, because the man of steel…ahem…steals the limelight and is the only one who can stop him.

Most likely Eisenberg was selected to portray Luthor as a modern take of the social media/technology entrepreneur. He also played Mark Zuckerberg…

The Joker (The Dark Knight)


Extremist Level: 7/10
Characteristics: Creative, Psychopath, Terrorist

Based on the modern day terrorist, the Joker’s new world order is chaos. Like a terrorist, he seemingly conducts random acts of violence on a large scale to unsettle and destabilise.

He’s only less extreme than some of the other villains on this list because he’d just as soon change his mind on a whim just for kicks. He’s fun at parties too.

Magneto (X-Men)


Extremist Level: 8/10
Characteristics: Devoted, Traumatised, Vengeful

His new world order is survival of the fittest, which means mutants to rule the earth. This means humans must die out like the Neanderthal before us.

Magneto has flipped around the Nazi’s Aryan race agenda by targeting Nazis and any other human as the weaker race. How poetic.

Ra’s Al Ghul (Batman Begins)


Extremist Level: 9/10
Characteristics: Disciplined, Spiritual, Committed

Ra’s follows a utilitarian view point, which is to maximise the overall benefit for the planet by sacrificing and purging societies.

He is one of the most extreme villains because he is willing to die for his beliefs. He inspires a symbol of purification that remains even after his death and which comes back to haunt Batman in Dark Knight Rises

Ultron (Avengers)


Extremist Level: 10/10 (Prediction)
Characteristics: Logical, Superior Intelligence, Inflexible (Prediction)

I predict that Ultron will be the ultimate utilitarian, following a long line of ‘evil’ computers who aren’t really all that evil. They’ve just been programmed to get the job done (see Hal from 2001: A Space Odyssey) and hence create the ultimate world order.

What will make Ultron the most extreme villain in this list will be a cold, calculating logic and belief that the earth can only prosper if all humanity will be wiped out.

You heard it hear first folks (unlikely as there’s probably a legion of comicbook fans who’ve probably worked our the entire plot by now).

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